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What is Networking

The process of linking computers, gadgets, and systems to facilitate resource sharing and communication is known as networking. Networking in the context of information technology refers to the planning, setting up, running, and upkeep of computer networks. A computer network is an assembly of networked devices (computers, servers, routers, switches, and so on) that may exchange information and collaborate to share resources.

In networking, important ideas and elements are:

1 Security of Networks:
Network security is putting policies in place to shield resources and data against attacks, illegal access, and other security risks.

2 IP Addressing:
An Internet Protocol (IP) A number identification given to devices that communicate over the internet is known as an IP address. Every device on a network is given an IP (Internet Protocol) address, which is a unique identification. The two primary versions of IPv4 and IPv6 are Internet Protocol versions 4 and 6.

3 Subnetting:
Subnetting is the process of creating smaller networks within an IP network in order to increase security and performance.

4 Routing:
Data is directed between devices on various networks through a technique called routing. One important piece of equipment in this procedure are routers.

5 Switching:
Switching is the process of sending data across a network, usually a local area network (LAN). Devices known as switches function at the OSI model’s data link layer.

6 Firewalls:
Network security tools called firewalls function as a barrier between untrusted external networks and trusted internal networks by regulating and monitoring incoming and outgoing network traffic.

7 Protocols: 
The norms and guidelines that control communication between devices on a network are known as networking protocols. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), and TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) are a few examples.

8 Links:
Connections between nodes are known as links. Wireless connectivity or actual wired connections are also possible.

9 Wireless Networking:
Wi-Fi and other wireless technologies are used in many networks in addition to traditional connectivity. Device mobility and flexibility are made possible via wireless networks.

Internet connectivity, local and wide-area network performance, cloud computing, and many other features of contemporary computing are all dependent on networking. Communication, cooperation, and resource sharing between many systems and places are made possible by this essential part of the infrastructure for information technology.

Networks types

( 1 ) Personal Area Network (PAN):
( 2 ) Local Area Network (LAN):
( 3 ) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):
( 4 ) Wide Area Network (WAN):
( 5 ) Global Area Network (GAN):
( 6 ) Campus Area Network (CAN):
( 7 ) Storage Area Network (SAN):
( 8 ) Home Area Network (HAN):
( 9 ) Backbone Network:
( 10 ) Virtual Private Network (VPN):

( 1 ) Personal Area Network (PAN):
Range: covers a tiny area, usually something that a single person can reach.
As an example: headsets and smartphones can be connected via Bluetooth.

( 2 ) Local Area Network (LAN):
Range: covers a comparatively tiny area of land, such as a campus or a single building.
As an example: Networks in residences, workplaces, or educational institutions

( 3 ) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):
Range: is restricted to a city or a sizable campus, but it covers a wider region than a LAN.
As an example: Networks that link several city buildings together.

( 4 ) Wide Area Network (WAN):
Range: covers a large geographic area, frequently extending across several cities, nations, or continents.
As an example: the actual internet or business networks linking offices in various regions.

( 5 ) Global Area Network (GAN):
Range: often operates on a worldwide scale and covers a much wider geographic region than a WAN.
As an example: Global communication networks, or satellite networks.

( 6 ) Campus Area Network (CAN):
Range: Comparable to a MAN but made especially for a major institution or university campus.
As an example:
A university campus network that links different departments.

( 7 ) Storage Area Network (SAN):
Range:
a dedicated network that offers high-speed data connectivity between servers and storage devices.
As an example:
For effective storage management, data centers use this.

( 8 ) Home Area Network (HAN):
Range:
a home network that links different gadgets and services.
As an example: A central hub is connected to smart home gadgets.

( 9 ) Backbone Network:
Range:
network infrastructure with high capacity that links multiple smaller networks.
As an example: the primary data center and internet service provider (ISP) network that makes up the internet.

( 10 ) Virtual Private Network (VPN):
Range:
a secure network that links distant users or offices over public communication infrastructure, like the Internet.
As an example: utilizing the internet to safely connect staff members to a company network.

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